Skin Cancer

Most skin cancers are locally destructive malignant growth of the skin. The cells of the epidermis are where it originates from.
Skin cancer develops primarily on areas of sun-exposed skin, like face, arms, etc. But it can also form on the areas like palm, feet, back, etc., which rarely see any sun.
People with all kinds of skin tones can be affected by skin cancer

Causes


Skin cancer occurs as a result of mutant DNA of skin cells. The result of which is the cells going out of control and creating cancer cells.
Skin cancer begins the top layer of the skin — the epidermis. It is a thin layer that provides a protective cover of skin cells.

  •   Much of the harm to DNA in skin cells is a result of ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight and in tanning beds.
  •   Skin cancer in body parts that are not exposed to sunlight may be caused by toxic chemical reaction in the air or some medicines.

Factors escalating the threat of skin cancer are:

  • Light skin tone.
  • A history of sunburns.
  • Sunny or high-altitude climates.
  • Abnormal Moles.
  • Precancerous skin lesions.
  • Having a history of skin cancer in the family
  • A weakened immune system.
  • Exposure to radiation.

Symptoms

The three commonly known types of skin cancer are:

1.      Melanoma
2.      Squamous cell carcinoma
3.      Basal cell carcinoma

Melanoma Symptoms:

  • A big brownish spot
  • A colour and/or size changing mole which may also be bleeding.
  • An itching and burning lesion

Squamous cell carcinoma symptoms:

  • A firm, red nodule
  • A flat lesion with a crusted or scaly surface.

 Basal cell carcinoma symptoms:

  • A waxy bump
  • A flat and flesh-coloured lesion

 

Treatment

  • Freezing: Your doctor may destroy early skin cancers by freezing them with liquid nitrogen (cryosurgery).
  • Excisional surgery: The cancerous tissue and a surrounding margin of healthy skin is cut out.
  • Curettage and cryotherapy: After the removal of most of the cancer cells, the tiny amount of the cancer cells remaining are removed by an electric needle type medical device.
  • Radiation therapy: When cancer cells can’t be removed completely during a surgery, this therapy is used to fully remove the cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: In this, drugs are used to eliminate cancer cells.
  • Photodynamic therapy: Combination of lasers and drugs are used to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Biological therapy: The body’s immune system is used to kill the cancerous cells.
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