Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a male gland located between the bladder and the penis. It produces liquid that nourishes the sperm. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in this gland. The tumour growth in the prostate can be both benign and malignant. Where benign tumours aren’t a big issue to your health and life whereas, a malignant tumour can spread to other organs, can be removed but sometimes grow back and they can be a threat to your life.

Symptoms

Symptoms aren’t visible during the initial stages, but one should get tested if any of the following emerge:

  • Pain in the lower pelvic area
  • Blood in the urine
  • Pain in the bone
  • Pain while ejaculation
  • Pain in the lower back, hips or upper part of thighs
  • Loss of appetite
  • Loss of weight
  • Difficulty in keeping an erection
  • Recurrent urination
  • Tiredness

Causes

There are a few factors that cause prostate cancer. They are:

  • Age: Older men above the age of 40 are at a higher risk as compared to younger men. The damage to the DNA of prostate cells is frequent for men over the age of 55.
  • Ethnicity: African American men have the highest frequency of this cancer. They are also more likely to contract aggressive tumours and that too at a younger age.
  • Diet: If you consume high calories, refined sugar and animal fats, you can get obese. Obesity is one of the prime cause of prostate cancer.
  • World Area: Men in North America and North Europe lose their life to this more than any other world area. It might be due to a combination of genetics, diet and ethnicity altogether.
  • Smoking: The chances of prostate cancer is double for heavy smokers.
  • Heredity: If your father, brother or uncle had prostate cancer, your chances automatically increase.

Treatment

The grade and the stage of the tumour are the deciding factors for treatment

  • Surgery: This procedure involves the removal of the prostate gland through laparoscopy or open surgery. This procedure is used only in the early stages.
  • Radiation therapy: Brachytherapy and conformal radiation therapy are the two ways the doctor will treat the tumour. In brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are implanted to deliver target radiation therapy. In conformal radiation therapy, this uses beams of different intensities.
  • Chemotherapy: This kills the cancer cells throughout the body, but it can have harmful effects as well.
  • Hormonal therapy: The androgens(testosterone and dihydrotestosterone) are blocked to reduce the growth rate of cancer cells.
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