Hypertension

High blood pressure is also known as hypertension, affects millions around the world, including children and teens. Hypertension usually develops over time. Typically, you would not notice any symptoms, but even so, high blood pressure can cause damage to your blood vessels and organs, especially the brain, heart, eyes, and kidneys.
It can be treated through medication as well as by making a few changes in the lifestyle.

Symptoms

There are several signs of hypertension; some of them include:

  • headaches
  • shortness of breath
  • nosebleeds
  • flushing
  • dizziness
  • chest pain
  • visual changes
  • blood in the urine

These symptoms can be fatal at times, and they need immediate medical attention. You can get your blood pressure checked once a year, or at the doctor’s appointments. It will help you keep your condition at check.

Causes

There are two types of hypertension, and every kind has a different cause.

Primary hypertension

For most adults, the cause of high blood pressure is unknown. This type of high blood pressure is known as primary hypertension, and it develops slowly over the years.

Secondary hypertension

Hypertension can be caused by another underlying condition. This type of high blood pressure is termed as Secondary hypertension. Some of those medical conditions are:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Kidney problems
  • Adrenal gland tumours
  • Thyroid problems
  • Certain defects in blood vessels since birth
  • Illegal drugs

Treatment

By making some changes to your lifestyle, you can control this condition, some of the changes are:

  • Consuming a diet with less salt which is healthy for the heart
  • Getting regular physical activity
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Limiting alcohol consumption

But, sometimes lifestyle changes are not enough. The doctor will prescribe medicines to cope with the condition. Some of the medications that will help you with the hypertension are:

  • Thiazide diuretics: Diuretics are medications that work on your kidneys to help your body remove sodium and water, reducing blood volume.
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: These medications such as lisinopril, benazepril and captopril help to relax blood vessels. They do so by blocking the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels.
  • Calcium channel blockers. These medications like amlodipine and diltiazem, help to relax the muscles of your blood vessels.
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