Fertility refers to the body’s ability and capacity to reproduce. It is the natural capability of an individual or a couple to produce offspring through normal sexual activity. Fertility is counted for both men and women, although it is evaluated on different parameters. There are two types in which fertility is affected, known as primary and secondary stages. The primary stage is where a couple is trying to conceive for the very first time. The secondary stage is where a couple has had one or two pregnancies before but is struggling to conceive presently.


Symptoms of fertility are different for men and women.

  • For women, a prerequisite is menses which starts during puberty. Every month, the uterus releases eggs, and when fertilization does not occur, the lining of the uterus is shed- a process known as menstruation. Menstruation indicates the fact that the uterus is releasing eggs ripe for fertilization. The number of days menstruation occurs is called a cycle. The process of releasing eggs from the uterus is known as ovulation.
  • Similarly, for men, changes in puberty contribute to fertility. Male gametes produce semen which fertilizes the egg released from the ovaries. Fertility in men depends on both sexual function and semen quality. The number of sperm cells and the ability to perform sexually determine fertility in men.
  • Causes

    Puberty is the main cause of fertility in men and women, and most importantly, the sexual development in puberty. Apart from that, the chances of conceiving are high in certain groups which have similar factors that contribute to fertility.

    For women, the factors of fertility are:

    • Regular periods and proper, normal menstrual cycle.
    • Ageing factor- Younger women are fertile in comparison to those who are on the verge of menopause. Also, fertility problems are much more common in women over the age of 35
    • No underlying ovulation disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, etc
    • No physical implications that lead to fertility problems, such as uterine cysts or abnormalities, damage in the fallopian tube or endometriosis

    For men, the indications of fertility are:

    • Normal sperm production and function- Healthy semen have a couple of indicators in terms of colour and occurrence. Sperm count will also be on a higher scale
    • No problems such as erectile dysfunction or blockage in the testicle that hinders sexual activity
    • No underlying conditions, especially sexually transmitted infections and diseases