Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea is a deficiency where the menstruation doesn't occur at a regular period. After attaining puberty, women undergo a menstrual period once a month. The absence of menstruation is called amenorrhea. It happens during the pregnancy periods and also during the days of breastfeeding.

Each woman until attaining the menopause undergoes menstrual bleeding. During this menstrual bleeding, the ovary releases the hormones progesterone and estrogen. The absence of these bleeding is called amenorrhea.

Types of Amenorrhea:

  • Primary amenorrhea.
  • Secondary amenorrhea.

Primary amenorrhea occurs when a woman doesn't attain puberty at regular ages. It is very rare.

Sometimes a person doesn't attain periods for more than 3 months, without natural causes like pregnancy and breastfeeding. This is called secondary amenorrhea. It is quite common in 3 to 5 percent of women.

Symptoms & diagnosis:

The primary symptom of amenorrhea is the absence of periods. However, the other symptoms are listed below:

  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Headache
  • Hair loss
  • Excessive facial hair growth
  • Changes in the vision
  • Weight gain
  • Acne
  • Pelvic pain

The diagnosis is based on the type of amenorrhea associated with your body. If a girl doesn't attend the puberty at the age of 16, it is better to consult a doctor. The doctor checks for the pelvic check and examines the causes.

For secondary amenorrhea, it is better to consult a doctor, if there is a delay in the menstrual period for more than 3 months. The doctor checks for the pregnancy test. If it is negative, the generic and karyotype tests give the result.

Causes:

Amenorrhea causes due to variety of reasons. The primary amenorrhea causes due to genetic disorders. It may be due to the delayed menstrual periods in their family history.

There are some genetic disorders associated with this primary amenorrhea which includes:

  • Turner syndrome
  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome,
  • Mullerian defects

These genetic disorders stop the ovaries to work properly. There may be some malfunctions in the uterus and fallopian tubes. So, reproductive development doesn't form naturally leading to the absence of menstruation.

Also, there are some natural causes of the amenorrhea which includes:
  • Menopause
  • Taking birth control pills
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding.

Treatment:

Surgery is rare to treat amenorrhea. But, the treatment may include several lifestyle changes. It involves diet, physical activities and stress-reduction measures.

The birth control pills and hormonal tablets stimulate the period. There may be a need to undergo hormone therapy if required. They are very rare and used only to correct hormonal and genetic defects.